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Several things. First the level of corruption and crime there I would say is as high if not higher than anywhere else on the mainland. Outside even of national statistics and government level abuse, the endemic nature of crime there is staggering. The state in particular retreats from most areas of life, in favour of nepotism, clientalism and organised crime. The Camorra syndicate operate there, against ordinary people and the government itself, with ferocity.
I’ve seen (very) first hand the activity of the Cosa Nostra in Sicily and even that activity does not blight a region like the crime does in Naples. Even tons of rubbish are left to rot in the streets like a third world country. As a result, a certain mentality is quite noticeable there, which is quite selfish, especially to outsiders. One of my great friends, who suffered at the hands of the Sicilian mafia, would not even stop while travelling through Naples for fear of the pickpockets and bent police there. (Cosa Nostra are a virus but an orderly one, around which there is often peace. Crime in Naples, because of its structure, is a chaos which drags everything in from the outside).
It is a sad example of an area which is blessed with beauty being denigrated by the social problems around it, which in this case have been multiplied.
Edit: Just to add a tiny bit more qualification. There are problems you will find almost anywhere in Italy if you stay long enough, engage with institutions, become associated with families etc. Unfortunately, Naples is at the centre of a confluence of very negative influences. It is poor. There are few jobs. The Italian police service are useless (and sometimes worse than useless). And of the three major bodies of organised crime in the region, the Cosa Nostra, the Camorra and the ‘Ndrangheta, Naples happens to be under the influence of the most disruptive at a civic scale.