Places with “New” compared to places they’re named after

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Etymonline has this for York:

>City in northern England, Old English Eoforwic, earlier Eborakon (c.150), an ancient Celtic name, probably meaning “Yew-Tree Estate,” but Eburos may also be a personal name. Related: Yorkist; Yorkish; Yorker. Yorkshire pudding is recorded from 1747; Yorkshire terrier first attested 1872; short form Yorkie is from 1950.

I am not sure but I assume the Danish Jórvík was borrowed from the local Celtic name, and then borrowed from Danish into English. In that sense I guess it is not fair to blame the reduction entirely on the English speakers, as it was already reduced when it became an English town.

Edit: I’ve simplified it slightly, according to Wikipedia:

>The word York (from Old Danish Jórvík 9th century AD) derives from the Latinised name for the city, variously rendered as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci. The first mention of York by this name is dated to circa 95–104 AD as an address on a wooden stylus tablet from the Roman fortress of Vindolanda in Northumberland.[4]
> The name Eboracum became the Anglian Eoforwic in the 7th century: a compound of Eofor-, from the old name, and -wic a village probably by conflation of the element Ebor- with a Germanic root *eburaz (boar); by the 7th century the Old English for ‘boar’ had become eofor. When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík.[11]
>Jórvík gradually reduced to York in the centuries following the Norman Conquest, moving from the Middle English Yerk in the 14th century through Yourke in the 16th century to Yarke in the 17th century. The form York was first recorded in the 13th century.[2][12] Many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Roman name.[13] The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature.[14]

So it went something like Brythonic –> Latin –> Old English –> Danish –> Anglo-Norman –> English

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